This article was published in CAUSE/EFFECT journal, Volume 22 Number 2 1999. The copyright is shared by EDUCAUSE and the author. See http://www.educause.edu/copyright for additional copyright information.
Creating a Campus Culture to Support a Teaching and Learning Revolution
by Dorothy A. Frayer
How can a college or university best support the faculty in the process of rethinking courses and curricula to unleash the truly revolutionary potential for technology to enhance learning? This article presents four key strategies that have contributed to a growing campus culture at Duquesne University to embrace the potential of technological tools to enable fundamental pedagogical changes. Specific examples of each strategy are provided and key success factors are identified.
In recent years the potential of information technology to enhance teaching and learning has been demonstrated in virtually every subject matter discipline. At the same time, most faculty have become comfortable using word processing programs, e-mail, and the World Wide Web, and a wider range of user friendly software has become available. The 1998 National Survey of Desktop Computing and Information Technology in Higher Education revealed that the percentage of college classes using technology continues to increase, with 44.4 percent using e-mail and 36 percent using presentation handouts.1
These fairly common uses of technology in the higher education classroom, however, still do not capitalize on the real power of technology to make available real-world situations, aid visualization, facilitate collaborative activity among students, support analysis and synthesis of information, simulate complex environments, and provide continual feedback.2 These "deeper" uses of technology require conceptualizing the teaching and learning process in a different way and envisioning new instructional approaches that might assist students in attaining course goals.
Educational research reveals that new knowledge grows out of the process of relating new ideas to what we already know and exploring the interrelationships among ideas; new knowledge is not transmitted but is created by the learner. Also, knowledge is constructed by learners as they attempt to make sense out of their experiences and test their own understanding against that of others, notably those of teachers or more advanced peers.3 Technology can enhance learning by fostering the active processing and application of new ideas and by providing opportunities for students to engage in dialogue about ideas with their peers outside of class time.
One of the obstacles to integrating technology into our courses in ways that maximize the impact on student learning is the tendency to look at technology as a way of enhancing our current instructional approaches rather than starting from the "ground up." Instead, we need to look back to our fundamental student learning goals for a specific course and brainstorm ways to assist students to reach these goals, keeping in mind that active involvement and dialogue about ideas are powerful catalysts for learning. Most faculty members find this kind of thinking energizing since their primary interest is in teaching and learning rather than technology. The question is, "How can a college or university best support this process of rethinking courses and curricula to unleash the truly revolutionary potential for technology to enhance learning?"
Certainly, adequate technology and support of its use is a necessary condition for success. No individual faculty member, department, or campus will be able to fully realize the potential of educational technology to enhance teaching and learning without a robust information technology infrastructure. Faculty access to hardware and software for development and use of educational applications, student access to PCs and the Internet both on and off campus, multimedia-capable classrooms with Internet access, training, and technical support are essential. However, these elements are not sufficient to create the desired revolution in teaching and learning.
Jane Marcus of Information Technology Systems and Services at Stanford University provides a very useful conceptualization of the factors affecting individual adoption of technology. In Marcus’s model, adoption is a function of available resources, the perceived value of the innovation, and communication with other adopters. Her dissertation research provides empirical evidence in support of the model, indicating that social/contextual variables are as important as resources in encouraging adoption of technology.4
Subsequent research at Western Michigan University5 also highlighted the importance of these factors. Faculty members on that campus were surveyed to identify factors that might influence the use of new instructional technologies. The most important factor identified was the need to be certain that technology would enhance student learning. Other important social/contextual factors were compatibility with the subject matter, advantages over traditional instruction, increased student interest, information on materials in the discipline, compatibility with existing course materials, and support from higher administration, chairpersons, and deans. Faculty were also asked to rate the importance of various incentives to use technology. Not surprisingly, released time, student and clerical support, and stipends were important incentives. In addition, however, faculty noted the importance of knowing that their efforts would contribute to promotion and tenure and would be recognized by the university community.
Four Key Strategies to Help Faculty Rethink Pedagogy Using Technology
This kind of research on learning and on adoption of technology can inform the design of campus programs to support faculty in rethinking pedagogy and using technology in ways that make a significant impact on student learning. For the past nine years, Duquesne University has been developing a comprehensive, campuswide program to reach this goal. The following sections describe four key strategies of Duquesne’s program and the principles that underlie them, providing examples of ways the strategies have been implemented at Duquesne.
Encourage faculty to learn about the successful use of educational technology by colleagues at their university and by colleagues within their discipline around the globe.
Creating opportunities for faculty to learn about successful uses of educational technology on their own campus facilitates communication with adopters (a social variable identified by Marcus as important in promoting adoption of technology). Faculty can discuss the impact of technology on student learning and motivation, the amount of work required to develop and implement applications, and the perceived value. Faculty are often able to make the conceptual leap required to see how a colleague’s use of technology might apply in their own discipline (for example, a historian might easily envision how a philosopher colleague’s use of computer conferencing might be adapted). Clearly, however, there are disciplinary differences that make it difficult to see how particular uses of technology could be transferred (for example, a chemist might doubt that the philosopher colleague’s use of computer conferencing would be useful in learning physical chemistry). For this reason, it is quite helpful to create opportunities for faculty to learn about technology use by colleagues within their discipline at other institutions (for example, the chemist might easily be persuaded that a symbolic and numerical software program such as Mathcad would enhance learning in physical chemistry).
During the past nine years, Duquesne’s computing center and faculty development center have partnered to provide a wealth of opportunities for faculty to learn about the ways in which colleagues at Duquesne and elsewhere have used technology to improve student learning:
Teaching with Technology Fairs. Five or six faculty members who are successfully using technology are asked to present at each fair. The goal is to have presenters from various disciplines, a wide range of educational uses, and projects representing various levels of sophistication. The format is similar to a poster session, with each presenter at a workstation demonstrating his or her work. Faculty who attend are free to converse with each presenter as long as they wish. Questions are often raised about the length of time needed to develop an application, the effect on student learning and motivation, and the amount of skill required.
Lunch Bytes. These brown bag lunch sessions often feature individual faculty who have used technology in effective ways, ranging from visualization of earthquakes in geology to student projects requiring use of import/export rate databases in global economics to virtual cooperative learning groups and electronic portfolios in occupational therapy. Each of these sessions attracts a diverse group of faculty who are often able to see how the ideas presented might apply in their own discipline.
Live Teleconferences. These satellite downlink programs, obtained from vendors such as PBS Adult Learning Service and National Technological University, enable Duquesne faculty to be aware of cutting-edge uses of educational technology. Immediately following such a downlink, participants discuss possible application of ideas presented during the program within the Duquesne University environment. Computing center and faculty development center staff serve as resources for this discussion.
Teaching Workshops. The faculty development center regularly offers workshops on a wide range of topics such as critical thinking, cooperative learning, and problem-based learning. Whenever appropriate, the content of these workshops includes ways in which technology might be used to reach the desired instructional goal. For example, structured, threaded discussion can stimulate critical thinking; cooperative learning groups meeting via computer conferencing can transcend the bounds of time and space imposed by the traditional face-to-face classroom; and information garnered from online resources and dialogue among class members may facilitate problem solving. In addition to these workshops on general pedagogical topics that include ideas for using technology, occasional workshops explicitly focus on technology-enhanced pedagogy. An example of this was the workshop, "Teaching Online Using Computer Conferencing Software," offered in the fall of 1996 by the first faculty member at Duquesne to teach a totally online course. In this workshop, she described her use of discussion, case studies, and small group work and showed evidence indicating that students had attained the goals of the course.
Stimulate individual faculty and departments to think about their learning goals for students and how technology might be used to help students attain these goals.
As noted earlier, the most common uses of technology such as e-mail and presentation software tend to be "add-ons" to current pedagogy and do not capitalize on the real power of technology to revolutionize the teaching/learning process. Encouraging faculty to identify their basic goals for a course, on the other hand, frees them to think more creatively. What do they wish students to be able to do at the end of the course? What are the "bottlenecks" (critical concepts that many students fail to master) in a particular course? What kind of experiences and assignments will help students to master course goals? These kinds of questions provide the basis for considering alternative, technology-based approaches to facilitating student attainment of course goals--perhaps drill-and-practice tutorials for basic skills, computer conferencing to develop critical thinking, or multimedia to enhance visualization of important concepts. Likewise, an academic department might consider its overall goals for graduates of its programs and how technology could be integrated into courses to ensure that students do, in fact, reach those goals. For example, students in journalism might need to develop skills in carrying out online research, evaluating credibility of sources, and creating Web pages. In what courses will these skills be developed and how will these competencies be verified?
Duquesne University encourages this "ground up" rethinking of courses and possible uses of technology on the part of individual faculty as well as by schools and departments. When schools and departments pursue such thinking, there is the potential for significant curricular reform. What follows are a few ways that Duquesne has fostered rethinking of pedagogy.
Schoolwide Integration of Technology into the Curriculum. Duquesne’s School of Music made a commitment to integrate the K-12 National Standards for Arts Education into the School of Music curriculum and to extend those standards to the collegiate level. The guidelines accompanying the standards indicate that "the curriculum should utilize current technology to individualize and expand music learning… However, technology should not be used for its own sake, but in order to achieve the goals of music education."6 Accordingly, the School of Music has examined its courses, noting the goals and content of each course and the technologies that could be used to increase attainment of learning goals. A theory course, for example, does not inherently require the use of technology, but student learning might be enhanced by use of a synthesizer module, music notation software, and computer-assisted instruction to develop ear-training skills. Strategic use of technology throughout the school provided a focus for relevant faculty development opportunities and led to the creation of a required freshman course, "Computers for Musicians," to familiarize students with the technology they would use in later courses.
Online Course on Online Teaching and Learning. During the fall semester of 1998, Duquesne pilot tested a course on online teaching and learning. Seventeen faculty and administrators took part, with all coursework being carried out online using FirstClass computer conferencing software. This approach enabled faculty to experience the role of learner while, at the same time, reflecting on the teaching/learning process and designing their own course. In addition to reading the text,7 participants read "lectures" by the instructor as well as articles on the Web. They posted responses to questions such as: "What do you see as the role that you are likely to take as an online instructor?" "Do you see this as different from the role of an effective face-to-face teacher? Explain." "What do you think will change for you in your teaching in the online environment?" Another assignment listed many instructional strategies that could be used in the online environment (for example, small group discussion, collaborative learning, problem-based learning, case studies, simulation, and project-based learning) and asked participants to identify ways they might be able to implement these strategies in one of their courses using technology. A separate "metacognition" conference provided a virtual class space within which participants could reflect on their own experience as learners. They might, for example, have noted how difficult it is to synthesize the comments of the 16 other participants or have speculated on why the degree of social interaction increased or decreased depending on the topic and the assignment.8
Summer Institute on Teaching with Technology. For the past four summers Duquesne has offered a summer institute for faculty. Participation is competitive, based on applications that describe a project that the faculty member would like to undertake, using technology to enhance some aspect of student learning in one of his or her courses. Faculty who complete the five-day institute receive a $1,000 stipend for their participation and commit to demonstrating their work within their own school and also in a university-wide venue. During the first day of the institute, there is a session on instructional design and an overview of available technologies. As a result of these sessions, a high percentage of faculty change their instructional strategy, choice of technology, or both. What is important is that faculty come to the institute having identified their instructional goal; institute instructors can then assist faculty in clarifying the best means for reaching that goal.
Teaching, Learning, and Technology Roundtable. The Teaching, Learning, and Technology Group (TLT Group), which is affiliated with the American Association of Higher Education, advocates that colleges and universities establish Teaching, Learning, and Technology Roundtables to help coordinate and stimulate the use of technology to improve teaching and learning.9 Duquesne University has had such a roundtable since the spring of 1995, with the membership comprising representatives of each of the 10 schools of the university, the computing center, library, and faculty development center. Duquesne went a step further than the TLT Group’s recommendation, however, and also created roundtables within each school. This has proven extremely valuable, providing a focus within schools for the consideration of learning goals and ways in which technology might be used to help attain these goals. At the same time, the university roundtable provides a forum to address matters that transcend the schools (for example, technological infrastructure or the university reward system) and facilitates the exchange of ideas among the schools and various academic support units. A good example of the way the roundtable concept has stimulated thinking about disciplinary matters and technology was the 1997 request of the university roundtable to each school roundtable:
Please give us your vision of what the future of technology in your discipline will be. We need your knowledge of the trends and directions in your discipline area. We can’t know that as well as you do, and it would not be practical for us to try to understand the nuances of a discipline and the overall technological direction in which it is moving. We would like to develop a coordinated "vision" of all disciplines in a three- to five-year framework that maintains the integrity of each discipline’s needs.
This request resulted in a thought-provoking set of school vision statements that noted trends ranging from the need for search and retrieval of information such as patient records and research data (health and sciences) to the use of technology in the courtroom (law). All school vision statements had implications for both the content and instructional strategies needed to prepare Duquesne’s students for their future.
Provide faculty with information about the teaching and learning process, effective technology-enhanced pedagogical strategies, and the availability of technology resources appropriate to their needs.
Learning about colleagues’ uses of technology and analyzing one’s goals for student learning build a strong foundation for integrating powerful and appropriate uses of technology into one’s course. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to provide faculty with the background to create cutting-edge applications. Faculty who implicitly believe that knowledge is transmitted, not constructed, are unlikely to adopt active learning strategies such as simulations and conferencing. Information about recent research on the learning process, however, may create openness to constructivist approaches. Furthermore, it is the insightful use of technology rather than the technology itself that results in learning. Consider two examples:
(1) Simply using computer conferencing does not ensure critical thinking. It is the crafting of assignments and monitoring of the conference in a skillful way that are likely to enhance students’ critical thinking; and
(2) Using multimedia to enhance a lecture may increase students’ learning. However, learning may be increased to an even greater degree if the instructor makes that same multimedia available to students to review outside of class time and develops assignments that lead students to interact with the multimedia in a constructive way.
Examples such as these can assist faculty in maximizing the pedagogical effects of technology use.
Finally, it is important for faculty to know what technology is available on campus to reach particular goals. What tools can be used to create sophisticated Web-based course materials? What software could facilitate student peer editing? What are the various possibilities for asynchronous conferencing? Is there a technology for desktop videoconferencing?
Based on the belief that knowledge about the research on teaching and learning process, effective pedagogy, and capabilities of available technology will lead to more powerful uses of educational technology, Duquesne has made available a wide range of opportunities for faculty to develop this knowledge.
Book Study Groups. The director of the faculty development center recently compiled a book of selected readings about online teaching and learning. The 12 articles included had a common theme, exploring aspects of good online pedagogy. Chapter titles included: "Creating Effective Instructional Materials for the World Wide Web," "Moderating Discussions in the Electronic Classroom," "Teaching Online: Computer Conferencing as an Educational Environment," and "Online Evaluation: Multiple Choice, Discussion Questions, Essay, and Authentic Projects." The conversations stimulated by these readings were rich, with faculty speculating how various instructional strategies such as small group work, simulations, and case studies could be used in the online environment to help students master the goals of their courses. As one faculty member observed, "Online teaching is more than putting up materials on the Web. The way in which students are asked to interact with the material, with other students in the class, and with me is critical." Although this group used a book of specially developed readings, there are several commercially published books that would also be appropriate.10
New Faculty Orientation. A three-hour workshop, "Introduction to the Campus Computer Network," is offered to new faculty prior to the beginning of classes each August. On one level, this workshop provides hands-on knowledge of the Duquesne computing environment (for example, e-mail, access from home, computer laboratories and classrooms, and access to library resources). At another level, however, it provides an early exposure to the instructional uses of technology at Duquesne (for example, FirstClass computer conferencing software, WebCT classes, course Web pages). Most new faculty have computing skills, but few have integrated the use of technology into their teaching prior to coming to Duquesne. The university tries to alert them to the possibilities from their first days on campus.
Early Summer Workshops. In 1996 Duquesne inaugurated a two-week series of half-day workshops on educational technology and instructional design, offered immediately following commencement in May. This timing suits many faculty, especially those who have children enrolled in K-12, whose school year extends through June. A few of the topics offered in May of 1998 included "Digital Image Acquisition and Processing with Adobe Photoshop," "Emerging and Evolving Technologies," and "Instructional Design for Distributed and Distance Learning." Although topics vary from year to year depending upon current needs, offerings always include information about teaching, learning, and pedagogy in addition to technology.
Lunch Bytes. As noted earlier, Lunch Bytes sessions often feature faculty who are using technology. Other sessions, however, are planned to provide knowledge about teaching, learning, and instruction. Fall 1998 sessions included "Computer Conferencing Tools," "Putting Face-to-Face Courses Online," and "Matching Technologies to Learning Outcomes." Whenever possible, sessions are planned to encompass technological considerations, effective pedagogy, and real-world applications. A Lunch Bytes session on computer conferencing might consist of a brief demonstration of FirstClass software, suggested strategies for using conferencing to deepen knowledge and develop critical thinking, and a description by a faculty member of his or her specific use of conferencing in a class.
Faculty Development Studio. Duquesne provides faculty with state-of-the-art facilities for multimedia production, including video digitization, digital audio production, image scanning, CD-ROM pressing, development of World Wide Web materials, interactive tutorial and test authoring, and presentation development. The studio is staffed with full-time instructional designers, visual designers, software programmers, and specially trained undergraduate and graduate assistants. These staff members offer one-on-one consulting in the development of curricular materials.
Newsletters. Both the faculty development center and the computing center publish newsletters intended for faculty. By design, the faculty development center’s newsletter includes articles about technology (for example, "How Can Technology Be Used to Enhance Teaching and Learning?") while the computing center’s newsletter includes articles about teaching (for example, "Using the Web to Foster Critical Thinking Skills"). Once again, the goal is to create seamless thinking about teaching, learning, and technology.
Reward faculty for their successful use of educational technology.
Faculty have many demands on their time and must make hard choices about how to use this finite resource. Developing cutting-edge uses of technology to support teaching and learning requires a significant time commitment. Junior faculty are unlikely to make this commitment if they believe this will jeopardize their promotion or tenure. Even senior faculty for whom promotion and tenure are not an issue generally elect to spend their time in ways that are rewarded by their college or university and their disciplinary area. The campus culture plays a crucial role in creating an environment for exploration of new uses of educational technology.
The Duquesne University community has given a great deal of thought to ways of providing recognition and rewards for the effective use of technology. Some of these approaches are direct, others indirect, but all work together to convey the message that taking on the demanding task of harnessing technology’s potential to enhance student learning is a worthwhile use of one’s time and talents.
Promotion and Tenure. Duquesne’s general promotion and tenure criteria are structured so that faculty must document their level of performance in teaching and scholarship. Each applicant is rated in each of these two areas as excellent or effective (or, possibly, ineffective!). Applicants are provided with examples of achievements that serve as indicators of excellence or effectiveness. As Duquesne strove to become a leader in the use of educational technology to support teaching, learning, and research, it was important to be quite clear that faculty accomplishments in this area would be recognized in the promotion and tenure process. The changes that were made did not substantially alter the promotion and tenure criteria but made explicit that achievements in the creation or use of educational technology would be recognized within the context of teaching or scholarship, depending upon the nature of the work. Also, it was noted that simply using educational technology would not suffice; excellence or effectiveness would need to be documented by indicators such as improved student learning, publications about the innovation, or peer evaluations by experts in the field.
Award for Innovative Excellence in Teaching, Learning, and Technology. Sparked by an invitation from the organizers of the Tenth International Conference on College Teaching and Learning to nominate a Duquesne faculty member for this award, Duquesne’s Teaching, Learning, and Technology Roundtable requested that each school nominate a faculty member for the award. One of these nominees was selected to attend the conference, receive the award, and give a presentation about his work. However, the roundtable was very much impressed with the quality of all of the nominations and decided to recognize these school nominees. This recognition took the form of a Provost’s Certificate of Recognition, an article in the campus newspaper, and an invitation to present their work to colleagues in university-wide workshops.
In addition to these teaching, learning, and technology awards, it should be noted that Duquesne has for many years offered Creative Teaching Awards to recognize innovative ways of teaching that inspire students and lead them to better understanding. Although Creative Teaching Awards are not specifically designed to recognize achievements in the use of technology, the projects of several award winners have, in fact, entailed innovative technology use.
Newspaper Articles.Duquesne University publishes a weekly newspaper, and reporters are assigned to "beats" in the various schools. Quite often, articles feature achievements in teaching with technology. For example, a recent article highlighted the work of a nursing faculty member who requires students in one of his classes to work in groups to develop a manuscript for an online journal, Issues in Psychosocial Nursing, which he edits. His students improve writing skills, learn to work effectively in groups, and may graduate with a record of publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Articles such as this in the university newspaper not only provide recognition but also serve as a source of ideas for other faculty.
Finding Common Ground to Create a Campus Culture
What are some of the factors in the Duquesne environment that have enabled the university to be successful in its endeavors to date?
One key factor has been the close collaboration between the computing center and the faculty development center (Center for Teaching Excellence) over the past nine years. Most of the activities described have been cooperatively planned and/or co-sponsored by these two organizations. As director of the faculty development center, I attend biweekly meetings of the academic computing group within the computing center. As a result, we are always "on the same page" in our thinking.
A second key factor has been the evolution of both "bottom-up" and "top-down" support for integration of technology. Duquesne’s president frequently mentions that the university’s leadership position in integrating technology into teaching is of strategic importance. Duquesne’s provost, a historian, is convinced that the insightful use of technology in ways specific to a subject matter discipline can lead to the most significant revolution in learning that has occurred since the invention of the printing press more than 500 years ago. School-based teaching, learning, and technology roundtables provide a venue for faculty to share disciplinary-specific ideas for use of technology and plan for any needed development opportunities or technology infrastructure. The university-wide roundtable enables faculty and academic support staff to contribute to decision making about any issue relevant to educational technology.
A third factor of importance is Duquesne’s unwavering focus on teaching, learning, and scholarship, with technology being seen as a means of enhancing the accomplishment of these fundamental university goals, not an end in itself. The involvement of the faculty development center in this initiative has helped to keep the focus on this perspective. The center provides workshops on a wide range of topics (for example, active learning strategies, effective grading, dealing with troublesome behavior, teaching large classes) and consults individually with faculty who have teaching concerns. Unlike the computing center, which could be perceived as valuing technology in and of itself, the faculty development center is clearly seen as valuing technology only for its value in teaching and learning. In reality, however, the academic computing personnel at Duquesne have incorporated this focus on teaching and learning into their own culture and way of working with faculty. They consistently focus on the faculty member’s instructional goals for technology and offer assistance in realizing those goals; they can speak as comfortably about teaching, learning, and assessment as about streaming video or dynamic HTML.
On the Horizon at Duquesne
As a faculty developer, what I find fascinating about the use of technology to enhance teaching and learning is that it leads faculty to rethink the entire teaching and learning process. At Duquesne, faculty are rethinking the role of presentation (whether via lecture or text); considering small group work, simulations, case studies, and so forth; and pondering how best to foster the deep learning of ideas and development of student thinking skills. Indeed, technology enables many pedagogical strategies that were impossible or impractical only a few years ago. A significant number of Duquesne faculty have created applications of technology that address "bottlenecks" in student learning and assist students in visualizing concepts, actively processing ideas, and dialoging with others about their thinking.
What is currently lacking is rigorous assessment of the learning outcomes of these technology applications. Although Duquesne asks faculty who attend the Summer Institute and those who receive small technology grants to create a plan for assessing the outcomes of their efforts, few faculty are skilled in carrying out classroom research, so results to date tend to reflect student satisfaction rather than student learning. We are currently looking toward partnerships between faculty who have expertise in outcomes assessment and those who have created educational applications of technology to develop more sophisticated measures of success. As we review the educational technology literature, we see very few research studies that are well designed and ferret out the factors that have the greatest impact on learning. We hope to contribute to this knowledge base.
We continually review our faculty development strategies and revise them as the sophistication of our faculty grows. For example, Teaching with Technology Fairs play a lesser role in our planning now than three years ago since their primary purpose is to create awareness of potential uses of technology and a sizeable percentage of Duquesne faculty already have such an awareness. In the early years of our work, we would simply ask faculty members who were using technology in teaching to share their work with colleagues. Now we structure such presentations by asking such questions as "What are your goals for student learning, what instructional strategies did you use, and how did you assess learning?" This helps to emphasize the pedagogical underpinnings of the technology application.
Like most institutions, Duquesne has to work hard to keep up with the technology needs of its faculty, students, and administrators. Our focus on the use of technology for teaching, learning, and scholarship, however, keeps us rooted in the fundamental mission of the university and gives our work a larger meaning.
Dr. Marc Harrold (email@example.com), a professor of medicinal chemistry, found that a significant proportion of his students could not envision the basic understanding that the action of a particular drug depends on the "fit" of the molecules of the drug with particular receptor sites in the body. He used ALCHEMY molecular modeling software to create assignments that challenged students to identify which drugs would have a particular action within the body. He found that following completion of the active use of the modeling program, virtually all students understood this fundamental "lock and key" relationship.
1 K. C. Green, Campus Computing 1998, The Ninth National Survey of Desktop Computing and Information Technology in Higher Education (Encino, Calif.: The Campus Computing Project, February 1999), 4.
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2 Robert B. Kozma and Jerome Johnston, "The Technological Revolution Comes to the Classroom," Change, January/February 1991, 10-23.
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3 Thomas M. Duffy and Donald J. Cunningham, "Constructivism: Implications for the Design and Delivery of Instruction." In David H. Jonassen (ed.), Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology (New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan, 1996), 170-198.
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4 Excerpted in Steve Gilbert, "An ‘Online’ Experience: Discussion Group Debates Why Faculty Use or Resist Technology," Change, March/April 1995, 42-45. The Gilbert article consists of annotated excerpts of a discussion about faculty adoption of technology that took place between July and September 1994 on the AAHESGIT listserv. In her posting, Jane Marcus synthesized previous discussion about faculty use of technology and, in addition, offered insights based on her dissertation research and subsequent work experience as an information technology professional.
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5 Thomas H. Spotts and Mary Ann Bowman, "Increasing Faculty Use of Instructional Technology: Barriers and Incentives," Educational Media International, December 1993, 199-204.
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6 The School Music Program: A New Vision. K-12 National Standards for Arts Education (Reston, Va.: Music Educators National Conference, 1994), 5.
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7 Colin McCormack and David Jones, Building a Web-Based Education System (New York: Wiley Computer Publishing, 1998).
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8 Lynda Barner West, Duquesne University Online Teaching and Learning pilot course materials, fall 1998.
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9 See http://www.tltgroup.org/
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10 See, for example, Diana Laurillard, Rethinking University Teaching: A Framework for the Effective Use of Educational Technology (New York: Routledge, 1993); Diana G. Oblinger and Sean C. Rush (eds.), The Learning Revolution: The Challenge of Information Technology in the Academy (Boston, Mass.: Anker Publishing, 1997); Rena Paloff and Keith Pratt, Building Learning Communities in Cyberspace: Effective Strategies for the Online Classroom (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, Inc., 1999); Donna Reiss, Dickie Selfe, and Art Young (eds.), Electronic Communication Across the Curriculum (Urbana, Ill.: National Council of Teachers of English, 1998).
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Dorothy A. Frayer (firstname.lastname@example.org) is associate academic vice president and director of the Center for Teaching Excellence at Duquesne University.
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